Russian DNEPROPETROVSK, formerly (UNTIL 1926) YEKATERYNOSLAV, OR EKATERYNOSLAV, city and administrative centre, Dnipropetrovsk oblast (province), south-central Ukraine. It lies along the Dniper River, near its confluence with the Samara. The river has been considerably widened by the construction of a dam about 50 miles (80 km) downstream. Founded in 1783 as Yekaterynoslav on the river's north bank, the settlement was moved to its present site on the south bank in 1786. The community was known as Novorossiysk from 1796 to 1802, when its old name was restored and it became a provincial centre. Despite the bridging of the Dniper in 1796 and the growth of trade in the early 19th century, Yekaterynoslav remained small until industrialization began in the 1880s, when railways were built to Odesa, the Donets Basin, and Moscow. In 1926 the Soviets renamed it Dnipropetrovsk.

Dnipropetrovsk has developed into one of the largest industrial cities of Ukraine. With iron ore from Kryvyy Rih, manganese from Nikopol, coal from the Donets Basin, and electric power from the cascade of hydroelectric plants on the Dniper, a huge iron and steel industry has grown up in the city; and castings, plates, sheets, rails, tubes, and wire are produced.
Large engineering industries make electric locomotives, agricultural machinery, mining and metallurgical equipment, presses, and other heavy machinery, as well as light-industrial machinery and radio equipment. Coke-based chemicals, tires, plastics, paint, clothing, footwear, foodstuffs, and other materials are also produced. Dnipropetrovsk has a university and teaching institutes of mining, agriculture, chemical technology, metallurgy, medicine, and railway and constructional engineering. Cultural amenities include several theatres and a philharmonic hall. Newer suburbs have spread to the north bank. The neighboring suburbs of Igren and Prydneprovsk were annexed in the 1970s.


ussian KHARKOV, also spelled CHAR'KOV, city and administrative centre of Kharkiv oblast (province), northeastern Ukraine. It lies at the confluence of the Uda, Lopan, and Kharkiv rivers. It was founded about 1655 as a military stronghold to protect Russia's southern borderlands; part of the old kremlin wall survives. The centre of a region of fertile soils and rapid colonization in the 18th century, it quickly developed important trade and handicraft manufactures and became a seat of provincial government in 1732. Its nodal position was enhanced in the later 19th century by the opening of the adjacent Donets Basin coalfield, first reached by rail from Kharkiv in 1869. At that period Kharkiv's own industries, especially engineering, grew rapidly. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of the Ukrainian S.S.R. in 1917, Kharkiv was made its first capital but lost this function to Kiev in 1934. In World War II this key junction was bitterly contested and changed hands several times, with very heavy destruction.

Today Kharkiv retains its role as a communications centre: it is the largest rail junction of Ukraine, with eight trunk lines converging on it and three main-line stations. Kharkiv is also a node on the trunk Highway system of Ukraine and Russia, with highways to Moscow, to Kiev and western Ukraine, to Zaporizhzhya and the Crimea, and to Rostov-na-Donu and the Caucasus. It also has a major airport. It is the second largest city in Ukraine and is the centre of a metropolitan area comprising about 20 satellite towns. The industrial structure of Kharkiv is headed by engineering. The city's wide range of products includes diesel locomotives, machine tools, mining machinery, tractors and other agricultural machinery, bicycles, generators, steam turbines, and many electrical items. There are also light industries producing foodstuffs and other consumer goods. Much of the power for industry and heating in the city derives from natural gas.

The great destruction of World War II made it possible for contemporary Kharkiv to be rebuilt as a city of broad streets, large apartment blocks, imposing, often ponderous administrative and office buildings, and large industrial plants. Among survivals of the past are the 17th-century Pokrovsky Cathedral, the 19th-century Patriarchal Cathedral, and the belltower commemorating the victory over Napoleon I in 1812.

Kharkiv is one of the most important cultural and educational centres of Ukraine. Its university was founded in 1805. There are numerous other institutions of higher education, including polytechnic, medical, agricultural, and various engineering establishments. In addition, the city has a number of scientific-research institutions, a park of physical culture, and a botanical garden. Kharkiv has a philharmonic hall, several theatres (the oldest of which dates from 1780), a planetarium, and a number of museums. Its subway system was opened in 1975.


Russian LVOV, Polish LWOW, German LEMBERG, city and administrative centre of Lviv oblast (province), Ukraine, on the Roztochchya Upland. Founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Daniel Romanovich of Galitsia, Lviv has historically been the chief centre of Galitsia, a region now divided between Ukraine and Poland. Its position controlling east-west routes and passes across the Carpathians has given it a stormy history. Polish control was established in 1349. The Cossacks in 1648 and the Swedes in 1704 seized the town. It was given to Austria on the first partition of Poland in 1772 and occupied by Russia in 1914-15. The government of a short-lived western Ukrainian republic arose in Lviv in late 1918, but the Poles drove Ukrainian troops out of the city and regained control. Lviv was seized by the Soviet Union in 1939 and, after German occupation, annexed by the Soviets in 1945. Modern Lviv retains its nodal position, with nine railways converging on the city. As a result, industrial development has been considerable: engineering products manufactured in the city include buses, agricultural machinery, loading machinery, bicycles, and television sets; there is also a wide range of consumer goods and foodstuffs industries.
Lviv is also a major publishing and cultural centre, especially of Ukrainian culture, which flourished there in tsarist times when it was suppressed in Russian Ukraine. The university, which was founded in 1661 and named for the Ukrainian poet and journalist Ivan Franko under the Soviet regime, is one of the institutions of higher education and research in the city.


Seaport and administrative centre of Odesa oblast (province), southwestern Ukraine. It stands on a shallow indentation of the Black Sea coast at a point approximately 19 miles (31 km) north of the Dnister River estuary and about 275 miles (443 km) south of Kiev. Although a settlement existed on the site in ancient times, the history of the modern city began in the 14th century when the Tatar fortress of Khadzhibey was established there; it later passed to Lithuania-Poland and in 1764 to Turkey. The fortress was stormed by the Russians in 1789 and ceded to Russia in 1791. A new fortress was built in 1792-93, and in 1794 a naval base and commercial quay were added. In 1795 the new port was named Odesa for the ancient Greek colony of Odessos, the site of which was believed to be in the vicinity.
During the 19th century Odesa's growth was rapid, especially after the coming of railways in 1866. Odesa became the third city of Russia and the country's second most important port, after St. Petersburg; grain was its principal export. Odesa suffered heavy damage in World War II during its prolonged and unsuccessful defense against German and Romanian forces.

The city remains a major port, the largest in Ukraine, with well-equipped docks and ship-repair yards. After 1857 a new outport was built at Ilichevsk, 12 miles (20 km) to the south. Odesa is the base of a Fishing fleet. The city's rail communications are good to all parts of Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania. Odesa is also a large industrial centre, with a wide range of engineering industries, including the production of machine tools, cranes, and plows. The chemical industry makes fertilizers, paints, dyes, and other materials. Odesa also has an oil refinery, a large jute mill, and a number of consumer goods and food-processing factories. Most factories lie north of the port along the waterfront, with newer plants on the western outskirts.

Odesa is also an important cultural and educational centre. It has a university, founded in 1865, and numerous other institutions of higher education. The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases heads its many research establishments. There are a number of museums and theatres, including the opera house and ballet theatre, dating from 1809. The seashore to the south of the harbor is a popular resort area, with numerous sanatoriums and holiday camps.


Also spelled DONECK, formerly (UNTIL 1924) YUZOVKA, or (1924-61) Stalino, city and administrative centre of Donetsk oblast (province), southeastern Ukraine, on the headwaters of the Kalmius River. In 1872 an ironworks was founded there by a Welshman, John Hughes (from whom the town's pre-Revolutionary name Yuzovka was derived), to produce iron rails for the growing Russian rail network. Later steel rails were made. The plant used coal from the immediate vicinity, and both coal mining and steel making developed rapidly. By 1914 there were 4 metallurgical plants, 10 coalpits, and a population of about 50,000. After the October Revolution (1917), Yuzovka was renamed Stalino and, in 1961, Donetsk. Heavy destruction in World War II led to postwar modernization and an increase in the scale of industry. Subsequent growth has been rapid and sustained. There are now more than 40 coalpits within the town limits. A major integrated coking, iron-smelting, and steel-making plant makes modern Donetsk one of the largest metallurgical centres of Ukraine. Coke by-products are the basis of a chemical industry producing plastics. There are several heavy-engineering works, which produce, in the main, mining equipment. Refrigerators are manufactured, and there are other light industries.

The necessity of avoiding areas subject to subsidence caused by mining has led to a patchy development of the densely built-up residential and factory areas and open spaces over the extensive area of the town's administrative limits (162 square miles [420 square km]). The principal street, from the railway station to the steelworks, is 5.5 miles (9 km) long, with the main shops, hotels, and administrative buildings. There are a university; polytechnic, medical and trade institutes; and more than 30 scientific research establishments, including a branch of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Cultural amenities include several theatres and a philharmonic hall.

Kryvyy Rih

Russian KRIVOY ROG, also spelled KRIVOI ROG, OR KRIVOJ ROG, city, Dnipropetrovsk oblast (province), Ukraine, situated at the confluence of the Inhulets and Saksahan rivers. Founded as a village by Zaporozhian Cossacks in the 17th century, it had only 2,184 inhabitants in 1781. In 1881 a French company began to work the local iron-ore deposits, and a railway was constructed to the Donets Basin coalfield in 1884. After that date Kryvyy Rih became a significant iron-mining city.

Kryvyy Rih, with its suburbs, stretches for more than 18 miles (29 km) in a long, narrow belt along the iron-ore deposits. The local high-grade hematite ores are for the most part worked out except at great depth, but there are vast reserves that have a lower iron content. In and around the city are several ore-enriching and palletizing plants to support the still-expanding ironworks and steelworks. Terny, which was annexed to Kryvyy Rih in 1969, has a major uranium mine. Other industry includes coking and machine building (especially for the mining industry); the producti


Russian ZAPOROZHYE, also spelled ZAPOROZHE, OR ZAPOROZJE, formerly (UNTIL 1921) OLEKSANDRIVSK, city and administrative centre of Zaporizhzhya oblast (province), southeastern Ukraine, on the Dniper River just below its former rapids. In 1770 the fortress of Oleksandrivsk was established to ensure government control over the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, whose headquarters were on nearby Khortitsya Island. The settlement became a town in 1806. The growth of the city dates from the construction in 1927-32 of the Dniper hydroelectric station, then the largest in the world. In World War II the dam was destroyed, but it was subsequently reconstructed.

On the basis of the power, a large metallurgical industry developed, including a major iron and steel plant. Zaporizhzhya has one of the largest strip-rolling mills of Ukraine. Coke by-products supply an important chemical industry. A range of engineering and light industries includes the manufacture of automobiles and electrical apparatus. The city stretches for several miles along the Dniper, with a greenbelt separating its industrial and residential sectors. There are teacher training, pharmaceutical, and machine-building institutes.